132 - ADDITION EXAMPLE 1: EXPLANATION of this addition - From where did the Koran get this non-biblical content on Adam?
There are no parallels to these koranic passages in the Bible. Rather, the Koran here presents a non-biblical teaching. For contrary to the Koran, the Bible does not explain, why evil came into the world. In the Koran the Devil tempted Adam and his wife, because he wanted to take revenge against them for them being the reason for his ultimate banishment from the Garden of Paradise. If Allah would not have created Adam, he (Allah) would also not have commanded the angels to worship Adam after his creation, and then the Devil would not have been banished from the Garden of Paradise for disobeying this commandment of Allah. But since Allah did create the first humans, therefore Adam, his wife and their descendants were viewed by the Devil in the Koran as the reason for his being cursed and banished from Paradise. This is why he wanted to harass them. With Allah's tacit permission (and in one passage, Sura al-Isra' 17:64, even with a prescription from Allah), the Devil did this right from the beginning of their lives in the Garden of Paradise by seducing them to eat of a forbidden tree, with the result that they also were banished from the Garden of Paradise. So, what in the Bible is taught as the fall of man, being the major biblical event in the life of Adam, is in the Koran encased in a teaching about the fall of the Devil, which is the major koranic teaching about Adam. This in the Koran reduced the fall of Adam and his wife into sin to be only a minor side-event, presented as a consequence of the major event of the fall of the Devil.
Since this episode has no biblical roots, we can ask: Are there any other texts, which may have been taken up in these non-biblical additions to the Koran? Yes, this seems to be the case, because there is a book written probably around 100 A.D. with the title “The Life of Adam and Eve”, which has remarkably similar content to these passages in the Koran. Heretical Jews, who did not accept the teachings of the orthodox Rabbis and who had their own scriptures, probably wrote it. It was originally written in Hebrew, but today is only available in a Latin translation. This book is today regarded as one of the Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, which we will outline in some detail in UNIT 18 towards the end of this ministry course. In the next step we look at the relevant passages from this pre-Islamic text that may have been taken up in the Koran in order to win heretical Jews over to Islam, who believed in this book: