11 - The Last Year of MUHAMMAD -- (632 A.D.)
The Final Pilgrimage of Muhammad and Further War Campaigns (before and after March 632 A.D.) - The Last Days of Muhammad, his Death and Burial (June 632 A.D.)
11.01 -- The Last Year of MUHAMMAD -- (632 A.D.)
According to Muhammad Ibn Ishaq (died 767 A.D.) edited by Abd al-Malik Ibn Hisham (died 834 A.D.)
An edited translation from Arabic, originally by Alfred Guillaume
A selection with annotations by Abd al-Masih and Salam Falaki
11.02 -- The Final Pilgrimage of Muhammad and Further War campaigns (before and after March 632 A.D.)
In the month of Dhu al-Qa’da (11th month) Muhammad made preparations for the pilgrimage and commanded the people to do the same. Aisha, the wife of the prophet, said that Muhammad had ridden off on the pilgrimage while there were yet five nights remaining in Dhu al-Qa’da (11th month). He appointed Abu Dujana al-Saa‘idi to be over Medina. Neither Muhammad nor anyone else spoke of anything other than the pilgrimage until he reached Sarif. Muhammad had taken along sacrifice animals with him, and some esteemed men did the same. Following the visits to the sanctuaries, he commanded the people to abandon their pilgrim status. The exceptions were those who had brought along sacrifice animals with them. I was unclean that day, when Muhammad entered in to me. He asked: “What ails you, Aisha? Are you unclean?” I answered: “Yes, by Allah, I wished that this year I had not travelled with you at all!” Muhammad responded: “Don't say that! You can perform all that the other pilgrims do, only not circumambulate the Ka‘ba.” Muhammad then entered Mecca. Whoever had brought no sacrifice animals along, abandoned his pilgrim status, his wives doing the same.
On the day of sacrifice, much beef was brought into my tent. I asked: “What is this?” I was answered: “Muhammad had cattle sacrificed for his wives.” In the Night of Stone Throwing*, Muhammad sent to me my brother, Abd-al-Rahman, who permitted me to visit all the pilgrim sites that I had missed from Tan’im. Hafsa, another wife of Muhammad, said: “When Muhammad commanded his wives to abandon their pilgrim status following the pilgrimage, we asked: ‘And what hinders you from doing the same?’ He answered: ‘I have brought along sacrifice animals and have put my hair into braids. I can only abandon my pilgrim status after I have slaughtered my sacrifice animals.’”
11.02.1 -- Ali's meeting with Muhammad
Abd Allah ibn Abi Najih reported to me that Muhammad had sent Ali to Najran*. Ali met Muhammad in Mecca, and he, too, was in pilgrim status. When he came to Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad, he saw that she had abandoned her pilgrim status and cleansed herself. He then asked her: ”What ails you, daughter of the messenger of Allah?” She answered: “Muhammad commanded us to take off the pilgrim garment following the visit to the worship places, and therefore we took it off.” Following this he went to Muhammad. When he finished giving account of his journey, Muhammad commanded him: “Go, circumambulate the Ka‘ba and then take off your pilgrim's garment, just like your companions have done”. Ali then answered: “I have consecrated myself, just as you.” Muhammad repeated: “Go and take off your pilgrim garment as your companions have done!” Ali then said: “O messenger of Allah, I swore as I put on my pilgrim gown: ‘Allah, I consecrate myself to you, just as your prophet, your servant and messenger Muhammad consecrated himself to you!’” Following this Muhammad asked him if he had brought along sacrifice animals. When Ali responded in the negative, he gave him some of his. Ali remained in pilgrim status until the pilgrimage was over. Muhammad slaughtered the sacrifice animals on behalf of them both.**
** Strangely enough, Islam incorporated the rite of sacrifice in the realm of the pilgrimage, yet without any redemptive character at all. Islam rejects any possibility of a substitutional sacrifice, and thereby annuls the possibility of the vicarious, substitutional sacrifice of Christ as the Lamb of God for the sins of the world. The sacrifice is emptied of its essential meaning, thus symbolizing the entirety of Islam: it is empty, without salvation for lost sinners.
When Ali returned from Yemen in order to meet Muhammad in Mecca, he placed one of his companions over the troops he had with him. This man entered the clothes chamber that Ali took along with him and gave to each of his men a garment. When he drew near to the city, Ali went out to meet him. He saw the clothes of the people and cried out: “Woe to you! What is this?” The companion responded: “I have clothed the group so that they might appear more seemly to the people.” Ali cried out: “Woe to you! Remove the clothes from the people before you appear with them before Muhammad!” He took the clothes away from the people and put them back in the chamber. The soldiers made it clear they were displeased with this action. When they began to complain against Ali, Muhammad climbed to the pulpit and I heard how he said: “O you people, do not rail against Ali! By Allah, concerning the religion of Allah there is hardly a one like him, who is so earnest and strict as he.”
11.02.2 -- Muhammad's Sermon at the Farewell Pilgrimage (March 632 A.D.)
During this pilgrimage Muhammad showed the people the sacred customs and ceremonies of the pilgrimage and held a sermon in which he explained some other things. After he had praised and worshiped Allah, he said: “O you people, hear my words, for I know not if I will meet you once again here in another year. O you people, keep your property and your blood holy*, until you meet your Lord, as holy as this day and this month is; for one day you shall meet your Lord, and he will inquire regarding your works.”**
** At the coming judgment Allah will not ask about the intentions and the faith of Muslims, but rather about their works. At the Last Judgment Christ also will pass judgment according to our deeds (Matthew 25:31-46). The difference, however, is in the fact that Jesus, by His blood, cleansed and justified His church -- all who believe in Him -- whereas Islam knows no justification and reconciliation with God. For that reason all Muslims will be pronounced guilty at the judgment. Even their own law -- the Sharia -- will accuse them and make manifest what was lacking in their deeds. These consist primarily in the fulfilment of the worship duties, in the building of mosques and the practice of charitable services. Islam knows no fruits of the Holy Spirit, which alone will be recognized and rewarded at the judgment of God. These fruits of the Spirit are: love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self-control (Galatians 5:22-23).
“I have revealed everything to you. Whoever among you has a possession that was entrusted to him is to return it to the one who gave it to him. All interest stemming from usury is forbidden, but your capital remains yours. Do no one wrong, then no wrong will be done to you. Allah has determined that no interest is to be paid*, and that all of the interest demands of ‘Ab-bas ibn Abd al-Muttalib are null and void.”
“There is also to be no blood revenge taken for blood that was shed during the time of heathendom.* The first blood that is to remain unredeemed is that of Ibn Rabi‘a ibn al-Harith ibn Abd al-Muttalib. He was raised by the Banu Laith and killed by the Hudhailites. It is the first blood from the age of heathendom for which there is to be no atonement demanded.”
“So then, you people, Satan abandons hope of ever again being worshiped in your country. But if he is to be followed in other matters, he will be satisfied with that which is evil in your deeds. Therefore be on guard against him in your faith!”
“O you people, the postponing of the holy months is a further act of unbelief, in which the unbelievers err. They declare one month, one year to be unholy and one year to be holy, in order to make up the number of months that Allah has hallowed.* But they desecrate what Allah has hallowed and hallow that which Allah has not hallowed. Time has completed its cycle and is as it was in the days that Allah created heaven and earth. The number of months with Allah is twelve, of which four are holy, three are consecutive, then Rajab (7th month), between Jumada (6th month) and Sha‘ban (8th month).”
“So then, o you people! You have rights over your wives, and they have rights regarding you. You can demand of them that they not tend to your mats for someone who displeases you, and that they commit no obvious adultery. Should they commit it, Allah then allows you to keep yourselves from their beds and to discipline them with moderation. But should they refrain from it, you are obliged to provide for them good food and clothing. Treat the women well, for they are your helpers and are not able to accomplish anything by themselves. You have gotten them as entrusted property from Allah and have taken them into possession through godly speech.”*
“Consider my words, o you people! I have fulfilled my mission and leave behind much for you, such that, should you pay heed, you will never be led astray: a clear instruction, the book of Allah and the example of his prophet.”*
“O you people, hear and consider my words! Know that every Muslim is a brother to the other. All Muslims are brothers. No one is allowed to take something from his brother that which he does not freely give him. Commit no wrong among yourselves!”
“Allah, have I not done enough to satisfy my mission?
The people then answered: “O Allah, yes!”, whereupon Muhammad said: “Allah, be witness to this!”*
The man who loudly proclaimed the words of Muhammad to the people on Arafa was Rabi‘a ibn Umaiyya ibn Khalaf. Muhammad said to him: “Say: O you people, Muhammad asks whether you know in which month we are in?” Rabi‘a repeated the words, and the people answered: “It is the holy month!” Muhammad then further said: “Say, o you people, Allah has hallowed your blood and your property until you meet your Lord, just as this month is hallowed for you.” He then went on: “Say, o you people, Muhammad asks: do you know what land this is?” Rabi‘a announced the words loudly and the people answered: “It is the untouchable and set apart land.” Muhammad then said: “Say, Allah has hallowed your blood and your property until you meet your Lord, just as he has hallowed your land!” He then said: “Say, o you people, the messenger of Allah asks: ‘Do you know what day this is?’” Rabi‘a repeated the words and the people answered: “The day of the great pilgrim festival!” He then went on: “Allah hallows your possessions and blood, just as he does this day.”
Amr ibn Kharija said: “Attaab ibn Usayd sent me with a request to Muhammad while he was in Arafa. I went to him and remained standing beneath his camel, so that its foam dripped on my head. I then heard how he said: ‘O you people! Allah has assigned to everyone his due. Testamentary bequests to an heir are not lawful. Each child belongs to the marriage bed and the adulterer is to be stoned.* He who claims as father him who is not his father or who lays claim to guardianship over people who are not his, upon this one falls the curse of Allah, the angels and of mankind everywhere. Allah will not receive from him compensatory atonement, no matter how great.’”
Jesus said: “Whoever looks at a woman to lust for her has already committed adultery with her in his heart” (Matthew 5:28).
He challenged the accusers of a woman caught in adultery : “He who is without sin among you, let him throw a stone at her first” (John 8:3-11).
Abd Allah ibn Abi Najih reported that while Muhammad stood on Arafa he said: “This station belongs to the mountain on which it stands and all of Arafa is a station. When he stood on the hill of Qusah on the morning of Muzdalifa, he said: ‘The site upon which I am standing and all of Muzdalifa is a station.’ When he slaughtered his animals in Mina in the slaughtering place, he said: ‘This slaughtering place and all of Mina is a slaughtering place (for slaughtering animals for the sacrifice). ‘”
Muhammad completed the pilgrimage, showed the people the practices, taught them about the divine ordinances of the pilgrimage, about the stations, about the throwing of stones, about circumambulating the Ka‘ba, as well as that, which is allowed and prohibited during the pilgrimage. It became known as “the pilgrimage of instruction and of parting”, for it was Muhammad's final pilgrimage.
11.02.3 -- Further Missions and Campaigns (June and July 632 A.D.)
Muhammad then returned to Medina. After he had spent the remainder of Dhu al-Hijja (12th month) there, as well as Muharram (1st month) and Safar (2nd month), he ordered an expedition to be made to Syria. He appointed Usama, the son of his freedman Zaid, to lead the army. He commanded him to lead the riders into the districts of Balqa* and Darum. The people armed themselves and the eldest among the Emigrants hurriedly rallied around Usama.
11.02.4 -- Muhammad's Envoys to Emperors and Kings
Muhammad had sent envoys from among his companions and given them letters to take to the rulers and kings in which he called them to Islam. One day, after Muhammad had returned from the pilgrimage, from the Day of Hudaibiya, he went to his companions and said: “O you people, out of mercy Allah has sent me to you to turn you away from evil. Do not resist me, as the disciples of Jesus, the son of Mary (Isa ibn Maryam) resisted him. The companions asked: “How did they oppose him?” Muhammad answered: “He called them to that, to which I also call you. But only those he called to a short journey were satisfied and accepted it. But those whom he sent to a distant place were unwilling and made difficulties. Isa complained about these to Allah, and the next morning those who had made difficulties all spoke the language of the people* to which they had been sent.”
Ibn ‘Abbas said: “Among the disciples and followers that ‘Isa sent out, were Peter and Paul. (The last one belonged to the followers and not to the disciples). Both were sent to Rome, and Andrew* and Manta (Mathew) to the country of cannibals. Thomas was sent to the east, to the land of Babel, Philip to Carthage in Africa, John to Ephesus, in the land of the companions of the cave (seven sleepers), James to Jerusalem, Ibn Thalma (Bartholomew) to Arabia, in the land of the Hijaz, and Simon to the country of the Berbers. And Jahudha, who did not belong to the disciples, was put in the place of Judas.**
** Ibn Hisham associated the commission of Muhammad with the report of the sending out of the apostles of Jesus.
Then Muhammad also chose envoys from among his Companions and gave them writings to take to the rulers whom he was calling to embrace Islam.* He sent Dihya ibn Khalifa al-Kalbi to the emperor of the Greeks (Byzantium); Abd Allah ibn Hudhafa al-Sahmi to Kyros (Kisra), the king of the Persians (Sassanides); Amr ibn Umaiyya al-Damri to the Najashi, the ruler of Abyssinia**, Hatib ibn Abi Balta to Muqauqis, ruler of Alexandria (Egypt); Amr ibn al-‘As al-Sahmi to Jaifar and Iyadh, the rulers of Uman (Oman); Salit ibn Amr, from the Banu Amir ibn Lu’ai, to Thumama ibn Uthal and Haudha ibn Ali, from the tribe of Hanifa, to the rulers from Yamama (in eastern Arabia on the Persian Gulf). He also sent Ala ibn al-Hadrami to Mundhir ibn Sawa al-Abdi, the prince of Bahrain; Shudya’ ibn Wahb al-Azdi to al-Harith Abi Shamir al Ghassani, the prince of the border regions of Syria (Jordan); Muhajir ibn Umaiyya al-Makhzumi to Harith ibn Abd Kulal al-Himyari, the ruler of Yemen.
Most of these envoys of Muhammad were killed, yet in the course of passing centuries Islam managed to subdue all of these kingdoms, with the exception of Ethiopia.
** In spite of the fact that the Najashi in Ethiopia had granted the Muslim refugees asylum, he was summoned to submit to Islam.
11.02.5 -- The Record of all of Muhammad's Military Campaigns
In all, Muhammad participated in 27 military campaigns, namely:
- the campaign to Waddan (Augsut 623, see section 14.1) or Abwa’;
- the campaign to Buwat (September 623, see section 14.2), in the District of Radwa;
- the campaign to ‘Ushaira (December 623, see section 14.3), in the Valley of Yanbu’;
- the first campaign to Badr (Sept. 623, see section 14.4), against Kurz ibn Ja’bir;
- the great campaign to Badr (March 15, 624, see the sections 15.1 to 26), in which the leaders of the Quraish were killed;
- the campaign against the Banu Sulaim (July 624, see section 15.26), as far as Kudr;
- the campaign of Sawiq (May to June 624, see section 15.27) against Abu Sufyan
- the campaign against the Ghatafan (July 624, see section 15.28) or Dhu Amir;
- the campaign to Bahran (October and November 624, see section 15.28), a mineral site in Hijaz;
- the campaign of Uhud (March 625, see sections 16.1 to 22);
- the campaign to Hamra’ al-Asad (March 625; see section 16.23);
- the campaign against the (Jewish) Banu Nadir (August 625, see section 16.27);
- the campaign to Dhat al-Riqa’ (June 626, see section 16.28) From Nakhl;
- the last campaign to Badr (April 626);
- the campaign against (the Christians in) Dumat al-Jandal (August to September 626, see section 16.28);
- the campaign of the Trench War (March 627, see sec-tions 17.1 to 9);
- the campaign against the (Jewish) Banu Quraiza (May 627, see sections 17.10 to 18);
- the campaign against the Banu Lihyan (July 627, see section 18.1), from Hudhail;
- the campaign of Dhu Qarad (August 627, see section 18.2);
- the campaign against the Banu al-Mustaliq from Khuza’a (January 627/8, see section 18.3);
- the campaign to Hudaibiyya (March 628, see sections 19-1 to 3), whereby Muhammad wanted no war, but the polytheists opposed his passage;
- the campaign against (the Jews in) Khaybar (May to June 628, see sections 19.5 to 27);
- the Contracted Pilgrimage (to Mecca; March 629, see section 20.1);
- the campaign of Conquest (of Mecca; January 630, see sections 21.1 to 20);
- the campaign of Hunain (January 630, see sections 22.1 to10);
- the campaign to Ta’if (February 630, see sections 22.15 to 18); and
- the campaign to Tabuk (October to December 630, see sections 23.1 to 8).
In nine of the campaigns it came to battle, namely that of Badr (5), near Uhud (10), at The Trench (16), against the (Jewish) Quraiza (17), and Mustaliq (20), (against the Jews) at Khaybar (22), at the conquest of Mecca (24), at Hunain (25) and at Ta’if (26).*
The remarkable thing about this summary is that Muhammad himself took part in 27 battles, nine of which were bloody. He was - in spite of all the made up assertions of Muslims - no man of peace.
11.02.6 -- The Mention of Expeditions and Dispatchments in Which Muhammad did not Participate
In all, Muhammad ordered 38 expeditions and dispatchments.* To these the following belong:
- The expedition of Ubaida ibn al-Harith below Thaniyyat al-Mara (March 623, see section 14.2);
- the expedition of Hamza to the shore of the sea (beside Sif al-Bahr), in the region of Ijs - some people place Hamza’s raid before that of Ubaida's (March 623, see section 14.2);
- the expedition of Sa‘d ibn Waqqas to al-Kharrar (May 623, see section 14.3);
- the expedition of Abd Allah ibn Jahsh to Nakhla (January 624, See section 14.5);
- the expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha to Qarda (November 624, see Section 15.30);
- the expedition of Muhammad ibn Maslama against Ka‘b ibn al-Ashraf (September 624, see section 15.31);
- the expedition of Marthad ibn Abi Marthad to Radji’ (July 625, see section 16.25);
- the expedition of Mundhir ibn Amr to Bi’r Ma’una (July 625, see section 16.26);
- the expedition of Ubaida ibn al-Jarrah to Dhu al-Qassa, on the Way to Iraq (August and September 627);
- the expedition of Umar to Turba, in the land of the Banu Amir (December 628);
- the expedition of Ali to Yemen (June to December 631, see further under section 25.22); and
- the expedition of Ghalib ibn Abd Allah al-Kalbi, from the tribe of Laith, to Kadid, where he defeated the Banu Mulawwah (June 629, see the following section 25.7).**
** This incomplete list of 12 expeditions (actually there are only 11, since the last expedition mentioned occurs in the following section in greater detail), is followed in the next sections (25.7 to 23) with a detailed description of still further violent expeditions that were commissioned by Muhammad.
11.02.7 -- News of the Raid Against the Banu Mulawwah (June 626 A.D.)
Muhammad sent al-Ghalib ibn Abd Allah al-Kalbi on a raid in which I also participated in, and commanded him to attack the Banu Mulawwah, that were camped in Kadid.* When we came to Qudaid**, we met al-Harith ibn Malik al-Laithi, also called “Ibn al-Barsa”, and took him prisoner. He said: “I have only come to convert to Islam and am on the way to the messenger of Allah.” We answered: “If you are really a Muslim, it will not harm you to be bound for a night; if you are not, then we have you already in our custody.” We then undid his shackles and left a young black slave behind to guard him. He was to cut off his head if he should offer resistance. We then went farther to Kadid, where we arrived at sunset. My companions sent me out to scout the area, and I climbed up on a hill that was elevated above the camp. A man then came out of his tent and said to his wife: “I see something dark on the hill that I have previously not noticed. Take a look at your belongings to see if anything is missing, something the dogs might have dragged away.” She went to look and then called out: “By Allah, there is nothing missing!” He then said: “Give me my bow and two arrows.” When she gave them to him, he shot an arrow that hit me in the side. I pulled it out, laid it aside and remained at my post. He shot the second and it hit me in the shoulder. I pulled this one out too, laid it aside and remained in my place. He then said to his wife: “If this had been a hostile scout, then he would have moved, for both my arrows struck him. Search for them when you get up tomorrow morning, you miserable one, so that the dogs will not chew them up.” He then went again into his tent and we waited until they felt safe and fell asleep. In the early morning we attacked them, killed some and drove off their herds. Then the best from their tribe came out of their tents in such numbers that we could do nothing against them. We hastened away with the cattle and when we came to Ibn al-Barsa’ we took him with us. But the pursuers kept getting nearer to us. Only the Valley of Qudaid lay between them and us. Allah then sent a huge flow of water into the valley, without us having seen any clouds or rain. It came with such force that no one was able to resist it or cross over. Our pursuers remained standing and had to watch how we drove away their herds in haste. No enemy could come over to us and pursue us further. Soon we were out of sight and brought everything in good condition to the messenger of Allah. The battle-cry of the Companions of Muhammad that night was. “Kill! Kill!”**
** ”Qudaid” lies 25 km northwest of Kadid, about 100 km northwest of Mecca.
*** The command to kill appears in varied forms more than 16 times in the Qur’an. It is therefore no wonder when again and again every form of terror comes forth as obedience to the commands of Allah. Islam is no religion of peace, tolerance or forgiveness; rather, it seeks victory over its enemies and pursues their subjugation and plundering whenever possible.
11.02.8 -- The Raid Against the Christian Judham* (October and November 627 A.D.)
When Rifa’a ibn Zaid al-Judhami came with the writing of Muhammad to his people, calling them to Islam, they listened to him. Soon after that Dihya ibn Khalifa al-Kalbi also came back from the emperor of Byzantium. He had valuable goods with him. When he passed through the Valley of Shinar, Hunaid ibn ‘Us and his son ‘Us of the Dulay’a clan, a branch of Judham, attacked him and robbed him of everythin he had with him.
When the people of Dhubaib, who were Muslims, and the clan of Rifa‘a ibn Zaid got word of this, they pursued Hunaid and his son and overcame them. On that day Qurra ibn Ashqar extolled his clan and said: “I am the son of Lubna!” Al-Nu‘man shot an arrow at him, which hit him in the knee, and shouted: “Take this! I am the son of Lubna!” His mother's name was Lubna. Hassan ibn Milla had previously been a companion of Dihya and had learned the Qur’an from him. The Dhubaib took everything from Hunaid and his son and gave it back to Dihya, who then returned to tell the story to Muhammad, asking for the blood of Hunaid and his son. After that Zaid (ibn Haritha), along with an army, was dispatched against the Judham. The Ghatafan from Judham, the Banu Wa’il and those descended from Salaman and Sa‘d Hudhaim had broken camp when Rifa‘a ibn Zaid came with the writing of Muhammad, having moved their camp to Harra al-Rajila. Rifa‘a ibn Zaid knew nothing of this. Only several Dhubaibites were in Rafa‘a. The rest were in the Valley of Madaan, on the side of Harra, where the brook bends to the east. The army of Zaid came from al-Aulaaj and attacked al-Maqis, who had come up from Harra, drove all the enemies and their goods together and killed Hunaid and his son, two men from the Ba-nu al-Ahnaf and one from the Banu al-Khasib. When the Banu Dhubaib got word of this, who were camped in Faifaa’ Madaan, some of them set out, among others Hassan ibn Malla with a horse of Suwaid ibn Zaid, which was called “al-Ajaja”, Unaif ibn Malla with a horse that belonged to Malla called “Righal”, and Abu Zaid ibn Amr with a horse called “Shamir”. When they got near the Muslim army, Abu Zaid and Hassan said to Unaif: “Leave us and go! We fear your tongue.” Unaif stopped. Yet the other two had not gotten far when Unaif's horse pawed the ground with its front hoofs and followed the others. Unaif said to himself: “I am more interest-ed in the two men than you in the two horses.” Then he let the reins loose quickly, until he had caught up with them. They then said to him: “Since you have pursued us at least spare us your tongue and bring us no misfortune today!” They reached agreement that only Hassan ibn Malla should speak. In the time of paganism they had a word which they learned one from another. When one wanted to strike with his sword, he would say “Buri” or “Thuri.”*
When the troops detected them and hastened toward them, Hassan called out: “We are Believers!” The first to approach them was a man on a dark horse. He began to drive them on ahead of him. Unaif then called: “Buri!” Hassan responded: “Gently!” When they stood before Zaid ibn Haritha, Hassan repeated his statement that they were Believers. Zaid then said: “Recite then the first sura of the Qur’an.” When Hassan recited it, Zaid said: „Make it known in the army that Allah has made the camp to which these men belong untouchable, with the exception of those who commit treachery.” Among the prisoners there was also a sister of Hassan, the wife of Abu Wabr ibn Adi ibn Umaiyya ibn al-Dhubaib. Zaid said to Hassan: “Take her!” She then grabbed him from both sides. But the mother of al-Fizr al-Dulai’iyya shouted: “Do you wish to set out with the daughters and leave the mothers back?” Then one of the Banu al-Khasib said: “Truly, the Banu Dhubaib and the magic of their tongues is manifest today!” One of the soldiers who heard this, informed Zaid. Zaid gave order that the hands of the sister of Hassan should be loosed from his sides and said to her: “Remain with your cousins until Allah speaks forth the judgment over you.” They then set out again. The troops were forbidden to descend into the valley through which they had come. They went to their families and milked the camels of Suwaid ibn Zaid. When they had drunk up the last of the milk late in the night, they rode to Rifa‘a ibn Zaid. Early in the morning they reached Zaid in Kuraa’ Raba, toward the back of Harra Laila, near a well there. Hassan said to Zaid: “You sit here and milk your goat while women of the Judham are being held captive. The writing that you brought has deceived them.” Rifa‘a had a camel brought to him and saddled and he asked: “Do you still live or are you just said to be living?” He then set off with them in the early hours and also took along Umaiyya ibn Dafara, the brother of the slain Khasibi. After three nights they arrived in Medina. When they came before the mosque, a man saw them and said: “Do not let your camels kneel down, otherwise they will break their front legs!” They then dismounted, leaving their camels standing and went to Muhammad. When he saw them he motioned for them to come to him. When Rifa‘a began to speak, a man stood up and said: “O messenger of Allah, these people are sorcerers!” He then shoved them back repeatedly. Rifa‘a then said: “Allah be merciful to him, who on this day does us only good!” He then gave Muhammad the writing he had given to him and said: “O messenger of Allah! Here, take this old writing upon which yet a new betrayal follows.” Muhammad commanded a youth to read it out loud. When he had finished reading it, Muhammad asked what had happened. When it was told him, he asked three times: “What should I do about those slain?” Rifa‘a answered: “You know it better, messenger of Allah. We want to forbid you nothing that is allowed and allow nothing that is forbidden!” Zaid ibn Amr then added: “Set the living free and the slain I will tread underneath my feet.” Muhammad then said: “Abu Zaid has spoken truly, ride with him, Ali!” Ali said: “Zaid will not obey!” “So take my sword,” Muhammad said, and he handed it to him. Ali then said: “I have no camel on which I can ride.” He was then put on a camel of Tha‘laba ibn Amr, which was called “Mikhal”. As they rode out, there approached a messenger of Zaid on a camel of Abu Wabr with the name of “Shamir”. He was allowed to dismount. He said: “O Ali! How do you stand?” He answered: “They recognized the property of the people and yet still took it away!” They then departed and encountered the army in Faifaa’ al-Fahlatain. They took everything from them except for the sack of provisions beneath the saddle.
11.02.9 -- The Campaign Against the Banu Fazaara in Wadi al-Qura (November and December 627 A.D.)
Zaid ibn Haritha set out for Wadi al-Qura* and there encountered the Banu Fazaara. Several of his companions were killed. Zaid himself was pulled out from underneath the slain. Ward ibn Amr ibn Madash was also killed here. He belonged to the Banu Sa‘d ibn Hudhail. He was killed by one of the Banu Badr (ibn Fazaara). When Zaid returned he swore that he would not wash his head until he had undertaken a campaign against the Banu Fazaara. When his wounds had healed, Muhammad sent him out with an army against them. He struck them in Wadi al-Qura and killed many of them. Zaid commanded Qays ibn Musahhar to kill Umm Qirfa. He killed her in a dreadful manner. They then returned with her daughter and with Abd Allah to Muhammad. Umm Qirfa's daughter belonged to Salama ibn Amr ibn al-Aqwa, who had taken her captive. She belonged to a noble clan, so that the Arabs said: “Had you been more esteemed than Umm Qirfa, you could not have done more!” Muhammad asked Salama for her, who then gave her to him. Muhammad then gave her to his maternal uncle Hazn ibn Abi Wahb, and she bore him Abd al-Rahman.
11.02.10 -- The Campaign for the Murder of the Jew Yusair ibn Rizam in Khaybar* (February and March 628 A.D.)
There then followed two campaigns of Abd Allah ibn Rawaha to Khaybar. The one served the purpose of murdering Yusair ibn Rizam ibn Rizam, about which the following is reported: “Yusair ibn Rizam was in Khaybar and assembled the Ghatafan in order to fight against Muhammad. Muhammad sent Abd Allah ibn Rawaha with a number of companions, including Abd Allah ibn Unais, an ally of the Banu Salima. When they came and spoke to him, they said: ‘If you go to Muhammad, he will then convey an office upon you, and thereby honor you.’ They pressured him until he joined them with a contingent of some Jews. Abd Allah let him ride upon his camel until they came to Qarqara, twelve kilometres south of Khaybar. It was then Yusair began to regret that he wanted to go to Muhammad. Abd Allah observed him and then fell upon him with his sword, taking his foot off. Yusair ibn Rizam struck him with a wooden rod he had in the hand, which wounded him. The companions of Muhammad then turned against their Jewish companions and killed them. Only one man got away on foot. When Abd Allah came to Muhammad, the messenger spit upon his wound, and no pus or pain ensued.”
11.02.11 -- The Murder of Khalid ibn Sufyan ibn Nubaih al-Hudhali (June 625? A.D.)
Then came the sending of Abd Allah ibn Unais, whom Muhammad sent to Nakhla* or ‘Urana* against Khalid ibn Sufyan, where this man had assembled people to make war against Muhammad. Abd Allah struck him dead. Abd Allah ibn Unais reported: “Muhammad had me called and said: ‘I have heard that Abu Sufyan ibn Nubaih has assembled people to make war against me in Nakhla. Go to him and kill him!’ I then said: ‘Describe him to me so that I will recognize him!’ He then said: ‘When you see him he will remind you of Satan. A sign to you will be that you will find him utterly disgusting.’ I went out with girded sword until I reached him. He was with women, for whom he was trying to find a camp. It was at the time of the afternoon prayer. When I saw him, I experienced a shudder, just as Muhammad had previously said. In any case, I went up to him. While I feared, however, that a battle might arise between us that could keep me from the prayer, I prayed before going. I then approached him and nodded with my head. When I was standing beside him, he asked: ‘Who is this man?’ I answered: ‘A Bedouin who has heard how you assemble people against that man, and is therefore coming to you.’ He said: ‘Good, I am occupied with that.’ I then went with him for a stretch until I found the opportunity to attack and kill him with the sword. I then left, while his women were throwing themselves upon him and wailing. When I came to Muhammad, he said, as soon as he saw me: ‘The matter is accomplished!’ I said: ‘I have killed him, messenger of Allah!’ He responded: ‘You have truly spoken!’ He then led me into his house and gave me a stick and said: ‘Keep this stick with you!’ When I came out to the people carrying the stick, they asked: ‘What is the meaning of this stick?’ I answered: ‘Muhammad gave it to me and said that I should keep it with me.’ They said: ‘Why don't you go back and ask him what it means?’ I returned and asked: ‘O messenger of Allah, for what purpose have you given me this stick?’ He answered: ‘As a sign between you and me on the Day of Resurrection, for on that day the fewest of the people shall have a support.’”** Abd Allah then bound the stick to his sword and it remained with him until his death. It was also buried with him, according to his command.
** The murder of one of Muhammad's enemies is to serve as a support for the murderer's justification at the judgment of Allah. In Islam, murder is seen as a service to Allah and a means to justification of the sinner.
11.02.12 -- The Campaign in the Land of the Banu Murra (December 628 A.D.)
There then followed the campaign of Ghalib ibn Abd Allah al-Kalbi in the country of the Banu Murra*. Usama ibn Zaid, together with a Helper, killed there Mirdas ibn Nahik, one of their allies from the Juhaina**. Usama ibn Zaid reported about this event: “I and a Helper caught up with him. When we drew the sword, he cried out: ‘I confess that there is no God but Allah!’ But we did not let up until we had killed him. When we came to Muhammad, we told him of the matter. He then asked: ‘Who gives you the right to kill someone who says: There is no God but Allah?’ I answered: ‘O messenger of Allah, he only did it because of fear of death.’ Muhammad then said again: ‘Who gives you the right to do that?’ By him who sent him with the truth, he kept accusing me so long that I wished I had not converted earlier but rather only on that day, and that I had not killed him. I then said: ‘Forbear, messenger of Allah! I swear that I will never again kill a man who says: There is no God but Allah.’ Muhammad asked: ‘Even after my death?’ I answered: ‘Even when you are no longer!’”**
** The Banu Juhaina lived on the coast of the Red Sea, west of Medina.
*** In Islam, it is an unforgivable sin when one Muslim intentionally kills another Muslim, unless it be for blood revenge.
11.02.13 -- The Raid to Dhat al-Salasil, in the Land of the Banu ‘Udhra (October 629 A.D.)
Then the raid of Amr ibn al-‘As to Dhat al-Salasil, in the land of the Banu ‘Udhra* followed. Of this campaign is reported: “Muhammad commanded him to summon the Bedouins to a campaign to Syria, for the mother of al-‘As ibn Wa’il was from the tribe of Bali, and he hoped thereby to win them. When Amr came to the spring Salsal in the land of Judham, he began to fear and requested reinforcements from Muhammad. Muhammad sent him Ubaida ibn al-Jarrah with the oldest Emigrants, among whom were Abu Bakr and Umar, commanding them to be unified as they were being dispatched. When Abu Ubaida came to Amr, he said: ‘You have only come to reinforce me!’ Abu Ubaida responded: ‘Not so, I lead those who are under my command, and you command your people.’ Abu Ubaida was an amicable, mild man, who was indifferent to the things of the world. Amr said: ‘No, you have only come to reinforce me.’ Abu Ubaida then said: ‘Muhammad commanded us to be unified. If you don't want to obey me, then I will submit to you.’ Amr then said: ‘So then, I am your emir and you are my reinforcement!’ ‘So it is,’ Abu Ubaida answered, and Amr led the people in prayer.”
11.02.14 -- How Abu Bakr Admonished the Former Christian Raafi‘ ibn Abi Raafi‘
As I heard it, Raafi‘ ibn Abi Raafi‘ explained the following from this raid: “I was a Christian and named Sarjis. I was the most experienced guide in this part of the desert. In the time of polytheism I would hide water in the eggs of ostriches in the sand and led raids using camels that I led into the wilderness and took into my possession, for no one could pursue me there. I would make my way to the place of hidden water and drink of it. When I converted to Islam, I joined the expedition of Amr ibn al-‘As to Dhat al-Salasil. Because I wanted to choose a companion, I chose Abu Bakr and joined his camp. He wore a cloak from Fadak, which he, when we dismounted, used as a carpet. As soon as we again set out, he would again wrap himself in his cloak, which he held closed with wooden needles. Therefore the residents of Najd grumbled when they apostatised: ‘Should we pay homage to the one who wears this coat?’ I said to him: ‘O Abu Bakr, I have accompanied you so that Allah might bring me benefit through your companionship. Give me good council and instruct me!’ He responded: ‘I would have done that even if you had not asked me of it. I command you to recognize Allah alone and to associate nothing with him, to perform the prayer, to give alms, to fast in Ramadan (9th month), to make pilgrimage to the sanctuary, to wash yourself after every impurity and to never want to assume authority over two Muslims.’* I then responded: ‘O Abu Bakr, I hope, by Allah, that I never associate anyone with him, that I never fail to perform the prayer and that, as Allah wills, should I possess something, to always pay the religious tax. I will fast in Ramadan (9th month), make pilgrimage to the Ka‘ba in Mecca, if I have the means to do so, wash myself as often as I need cleansing. But concerning commanding, as I see it, only those who are entrusted with the office of emir are held in honor by Muhammad and the other people. Why then do you forbid it me?’ He answered: ‘You have requested me to tell you about the sacred duties, and that I will do. Allah sent Muhammad with this faith, and he fought for it, until all people accepted it, either voluntarily or by force.** When they accepted it, they became protégés and allies under his protection. Be careful that you do not betray Allah through his protégés, otherwise he will give you up. For if one of you were wronged in this way, his muscles will swell up with anger if only a camel or a sheep of his protégé be injured. And Allah will come to even great anger on behalf of his protégés.’ Then I left him. When Abu Bakr was chosen after Muhammad to be the leader, I came to him and said: ‘O Abu Bakr, did you not forbid me to take authority over two Muslims?’ He answered: ‘Most certainly, and I still forbid you it even now.’ I then said: ‘Why then did you assume the supreme command (the caliphate) over all people?’ He answered: ‘I could do no differently, for I feared the community of Muhammad (Umma) would be divided.’”***
** Abu Bakr openly admitted that Islam expects either a freewill submission or a forced subjugation - by brute force if necessary.
*** Following the death of Muhammad, the situation of the Muslims was for a short time entirely critical. Abu Bakr alone was the integrating figure who could hold together the different tribal interests.
11.02.15 -- What Happened With ‘Auf ibn Malik al-Ajsha'i
‘Auf ibn Malik al-Ajsha’i related: “I was present at the raid of Dhat al-Salasil, in the company of Umar and Abu Bakr. Then I passed by some people who had slaughtered a camel, but were unable to dismember it. Since I was a skilled butcher, I asked them if they wanted to give me a tenth of it if I were to divide the camel up among them. They agreed, and I took the knife, immediately cut apart the camel, took a piece of it and brought it to my companions. We cooked and ate it. Abu Bakr and Umar asked me where I had gotten the meat. I told them and they said: ‘You have done wrong in giving us this meat!’ They then rose up and vomited what they had eaten.* On the return journey, I was the first one to come to Muhammad. He was praying in his house, and I said: ‘Peace be upon you, messenger of Allah, and may Allah's grace and mercy be with you!’ He asked me: ‘Are you ‘Auf ibn Malik al-Ajsha’i?’ I answered: ‘Yes, you are more precious to me than father and mother.’ He then asked: ‘Are you the man who slaughtered the camel?’ And he said nothing more.”
11.02.16 -- The Campaign to the Valley of Idam (December 629 A.D.)
Then the raid of Ibn Abi Hadrad took place to the Valley of Idam.* Al-Qa‘qaa‘ ibn Abd Allah reported that his father had said to him: “Muhammad sent us with a number of Muslims to Idam. Abu Qatada al-Harith and Muhallim ibn Jaththama were among them. When we were in the Valley of Idam, ‘Aamir ibn al-Adbat al-Ashja’i came over to us on a camel. He had with him bread smeared with fat and a skin filled with milk. When he passed by us, he greeted us in the Islamic manner, and we let him go on. But Muhallim attacked and killed him because of an earlier quarrel and then took his camel and his bread. When we came to Muhammad and reported the matter to him, he revealed: “O Believers, when you are journeying in the path of Allah (i.e. on a war campaign), be discriminating, and do not say to him who offers you greeting, ‘Thou art not a believer,’ seeking the chance goods of the present life ...” (Sura al-Nisa 4:94).
‘Urwa ibn Zubair reported the following from his grandfather, who was with Muhammad at Hunain (see sections 22.1 to 10): “Muhammad led us in the midday prayer, and he then sat down under the shade of a tree in Hunain. Al-Aqra ibn Habis and Uyayna ibn Hisn ibn Hudhaifa then fell into a quarrel with each other over the matter of Amir ibn al-Adbat. Uyayna, who at that time was the chieftain of the Ghatafan, demanded the blood revenge of Amir, and al-Aqra’ defended Muhallim be-cause of his position under Khindif. They then brought their quarrel before Muhammad and we listened. We heard how Uyayna said: ‘By Allah, messenger of Allah, I will not let him off until I make his women suffer the same torment that he caused mine.’ Muhammad said: ‘You must accept blood money -- fifty camels on this trip and fifty after our return!’ Uyayna refused to accept this. Mukaithar then rose up, a small, stocky man from the Banu Laith and said: ‘O messenger of Allah! By Allah, I cannot compare this man who died in the first lustre of Islam with anything else than a herd of sheep that went to the water and then is scattered to the last one when the first one is met with an arrow. Give the right example today, and change the law tomorrow!’ Muhammad raised his hand high and said: ‘Not so, you must accept the redemption money -- fifty on the trip and fifty after our return.’ Following this they accepted the redemption money. They then asked: ‘Where is your friend, so that Muhammad can implore the mercy of Allah for him?’ There then rose up a tall, haggard and tanned man, draped in a coat in which he thought he was going to be killed, and sat down before Muhammad. The prophet asked him his name and he answered: ‘My name is Muhallim ibn Jaththama!’ Muhammad raised his hand and said three times: ‘Allah, do not forgive Muhallim ibn Jaththama!’* He rose up and wiped his tears with the edge of his garment. We, however, said among ourselves: ‘We had hoped that Muhammad would implore Allah to forgive him.’ But what we saw him do was what has just been said.”
11.02.17 -- The Murder of the Jushamite Rifa‘a ibn Qays near Medina (December 629 A.D.)
There then followed the campaign of Ibn Abi Hadrad to al-Ghaba*, one which, a reliable person told me, Ibn Abi Hadrad himself reported in the following manner: “I wanted to marry a woman from my tribe and had promised her a dowry of two hundred dirhams. I asked Muhammad for his support in the matter of my marriage. He asked me how large the dowry was. When I said it was 200 dirhams, he responded: ‘May Allah be praised! If you were able to procure dirhams from the bottom of a valley, you would not have given more. By Allah, I have nothing with which I can help you!’
After some days a respectable, honoured man, Rifa‘a ibn Qays, went with many families of his tribe to al-Ghaba, in order to assemble there the Banu Qays for war against Muhammad. Muhammad had me called and said to me and two other Muslims: ‘Go out and bring me news of this man!’ He then had an old, haggard camel led before us that - as one of us mounted it - it could no longer rise up out of weakness, so that some men from behind had to give support until it could finally stand up. Muhammad then said: ‘Be satisfied with it and ride upon it in turns!’ We went out armed with sword and arrows and at sunset reached the vicinity of the enemy camp. I waited on one side of the camp and my companions did so on the other. I had said to them: ‘When you hear me call out: Allah is greater!* and see that I storm into the camp, then do the same thing from your side.’ We remained in our place and waited until we surprised the enemy or we could take something away from him. The night had already fallen upon us. The evening fires had gone out and the shepherd who was grazing the cattle had not yet returned. They became fearful. Rifa‘a, their chieftain, hung his sword around him and said: ‘By Allah, I will search for our shepherd. A misfortune must have happened to him!’ Several of his companions offered to go with him and implored him either to stay or to at least take them along. But he swore by Allah, he would go without escort. When he came by me, I shot an arrow into his heart. By Allah, he uttered not a further word. I then jumped up to him and took his head off. I then called out: ‘Allah is greater!’ and stormed into the one side of the camp, while my companions came from the other side. By Allah, the people thought on nothing but to flee, and took only as much along as they could take in haste. We drove away many camels and sheep and led them to Muhammad. I also brought him Rifa‘a's head. Muhammad gave me thirteen camels for the dowry, and I consummated the marriage.”
11.02.18 -- The Murder of Abu ‘Afak in Medina (April 624 A.D.)
Salim ibn ‘Umayr, one of the Hypocrites, was sent out to kill Abu ‘Afak of the Banu ‘Ubaida. His hypocricy became evident when Muhammad killed al-Harith ibn Suwayd. He then composed:
nor an assembly of people more faithful
to the covenant, keeping its word
to Companions seeking help, save the Sons of Qaila.
The mountains split apart, but they did not yield.
Then a rider came and divided them in two,
the holy and the profane were split apart.
Had you but recognized the true strength
or had you only followed the ancient rule!
Muhammad asked: “Who will free me of this scoundrel?” Salim ibn ‘Umayr, one of the Hypocrites, went forth and slew him.* Umama al-Muzairriyya composed:
Truly, Amr, the one who begot you, begot an evil man.
Therefore a Believer has struck you at night's end.
Take that, Abu ‘Afak - despite your advanced age.”
11.02.19 -- The Murder of Asma’, the Daughter of Marwan in Medina (March 624 A.D.)
Asma’, the daughter of Marwan, against whom ‘Umayr ibn Adi set out, was from the Banu Umaiyya, and revealed herself to be a Hypocrite after the murder of Abu ‘Afak. She was the wife of a man of the Banu Khatma, whose name was Yazid ibn Zaid. She reviled Islam and those who confess it in the following verses:
and after the murder of leaders
you expect gifts from strangers,
not from Murad and Madhhij,
as one expects the juice of ripened fruit.
Do you not resemble him, who has a sick nose,
wishing for a pretty face,
cherishing hopes that will never be fulfilled?
When Muhammad heard this, he asked: “Is there no one to rid me from the daughter of Marwan?” When ‘Umayr ibn Adi al-Khatmi, who was with him, heard this, he went in the same night to her and killed her. On the following morning he went to Muhammad and told him that he had killed her. Muhammad said: “You have assisted Allah and his messenger.”* He then asked him if he needed to fear anything for her sake. Muhammad answered: ‘Not two goats will butt their heads because of her.” After this ‘Umayr went back to his own people. The Banu Khatma were greatly agitated because of the murder of the daughter of Marwan, for she had at that time five grown sons. When ‘Umayr came to the Banu Khatma, he said: “I have slain the daughter of Marwan! Do battle with me, then you won't need much time to consider.” This was the first day in which the house of the Banu Khatma was glorified through Islam, for those who had confessed Islam had kept it secret. The first was ‘Umayr, who was called the “Qur’an reader”, then Abd Allah ibn Aus and Khuzaima ibn Thabit. But on the day of the murder of the daughter of Marwan, when the Banu Khatma saw the strength of Islam, many more of them converted.
11.02.20 -- The Capture and Conversion of Thumama
Abu Huraira reported: “Some riders of Muhammad set out and took captive a man of the Banu Hanifa*. They did not know who he was until they brought him to Muhammad. Muhammad said: ‘Do you know whom you have taken prisoner? That is Thumama ibn Uthal al-Hanafi! Treat him well!’ Muhammad then returned to his family and said: ‘Gather all the food together that you have and send it to the prisoner!’ He also had his milk camel brought to him in the morning and evening, so that he should lack nothing. Muhammad then went to him and urged him to become a Muslim. He answered: ‘If you want to kill me, then kill a man burdened with a blood debt. If you want a ransom, then demand what you will!’ There then passed as many days as it pleased Allah. One day Muhammad said: ‘Let Thumama go free!’ When he was free, he went to al-Baqi‘ and purified himself in the best manner. He then came to Muhammad and paid homage to Islam. In the evening he was brought his food as before. But he took only a little milk from the milk camel. The Muslims were amazed at this. When Muhammad heard of it, he said: ‘What is it that amazes you? Is it over a man who eats in the morning with the stomach of an unbeliever and in the evening with that of a believer? The unbeliever eats with seven stomachs, but the believer with only one.’”
Ibn Hisham said: “It was reported to me that he then made pilgrimage to Mecca and said, as he came into the Valley of Mecca, ‘labbaika’* (I stand available to you for service). He was the first to say this upon entering Mecca.”
11.02.21 -- The Expedition to Punish the Men of Badjila (September 624 A.D.)
In the raids against Muharib and Tha‘laba, Muhammad had gotten a slave named “Yasar”. In the region of Jamaa’ (near Medina) he had him shepherd a camel out onto the pasture. One day there came people from Qays Kubba, a branch of Bajila*, to Muhammad. They were sick with fever and bloated. Muhammad said: “Go to the female camels and drink from their milk and their urine.” When they were well again and their stomachs contracted back to their normal size, they attacked Yasar and slaughtered** him, drove thorns into his eyes and drove off the camel. Muhammad then sent Kurz ibn Jabir to them. He brought them to Muhammad after his return from Dhu Qarad***. He had their hands and feet cut off and their eyes blinded.****
** ”Slaughter” means to kill by cutting the throat, so that the victim bleeds slowly to death. In the last minutes of his life, they poked out Yasar’s eyes.
*** ”Dhu Qarad” lies approx. 20 km north of Medina.
**** A horrible judgment following an evil deed! Islam continues to follow the command: “an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth” (Exodus 21:23-25). It does not know the answer of Christ: “I tell you not to resist an evil person” (Matthew 5:38-39).
11.02.22 -- Ali and Khalid ibn al-Walid's Expedition to Yemen (June to December 631 A.D.)
Muhammad sent Ali (December 631 A.D.) to Yemen. In addition he sent other troops there with Khalid ibn al-Walid (June and July 631 A.D.), and said: “When you encounter each other, Ali is to be in command.” Ibn Ishaq does mention in his history the sending of Khalid to Yemem, but he does not mention it in the listing of the war campaigns and military missions. Thus the total number should be 39.
11.02.23 -- Muhammad's Last Command for War (June 632 A.D.)
Muhammad sent Zaid to Syria,* and into the districts of Balqa’ and Darum, which belonged to Palestine. The people armed themselves and the oldest Emigrants flocked to Zaid. It was the last expedition to be commanded by Muhammad.
11.03 -- The Last Days of Muhammad, his Death and his Burial (June 632 A.D.)
11.03.1 -- The Beginning of Muhammad's Sickness (June 632 A.D.)
While the people were underway, the sickness began to manifest itself through which Allah in his compassion was to take away the messenger. It was during the last days of Safar (2nd month), respectively in the first days of Rabi‘a al Awwal (3rd month of the 11th year following the Hijra). In the middle of the night Muhammad went to Baqi al-Gharqad and beseeched Allah's mercy for those who were buried there. He then returned to his family. From this night on he was sick.
Abu Muwaihiba, a freedman of Muhammad's, said: “Muhammad woke me in the middle of the night and said: ‘It has been commanded me to pray for the people of this burial ground. Come with me!’ I went with him, and as he was standing in their midst, he said: ‘Peace be upon you, you dwellers of these graves! Your condition will be better than that of other people. Temptations as omens of the Final Judgment will come like portions of a dark night. One will follow the next and the final one will be worse than the first!’ He then turned to me and said: ‘O Muwaihiba! I have been given the choice between the key to the treasures of the earth and the key to Paradise. I have chosen the latter.’ He then prayed for the dwellers of the graves and went on; then the sickness, from which he would die, began.”
Aisha, the wife of Muhammad, related: “When Muhammad came back from the burial ground, I had a head ache and cried out: ‘O, the pain in my head!’ He called: ‘No, my head!’ He then said: ‘What harm would it do you should you die before me, if I place you in the burial shroud, pray for you and then bury you?’ I answered: ‘By Allah, if you would do this it would be for me like seeing you returning to my house to get engaged in my house to another woman.’ Muhammad smiled.* Although the sickness grew worse and worse, he still managed to make the rounds** to his wives, until the illness became unbearable. Just then he was in the house of Maimuna. He then had all his wives called and asked their permission for him to spend the time of his sickness in my dwelling. And they granted him his wish.”
** Making the rounds, or Tawaf: This word was used to describe the circumambulation of the Ka‘ba, and was also used for the marital duties of Muhammad toward his diverse wives.
11.03.2 -- Muhammad's Wives, the Mothers of the Believers
Muhammad had nine wives: Aisha, the daughter of Abu Bakr; Hafsa, the daughter of Umar; Umm Habiba, the daughter of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb; Umm Salama, the daughter of Abu Umaiyya ibn al-Mughira; Sauda, the daughter of Zama’a ibn Qays; Zainab, the daughter of Jahsh ibn Riab; Maimuna, the daughter of Harith ibn Hazn; Juwairiya, the daughter of Harith ibn Abi Dhirar and Safiyya, the daughter of Huyay ibn Akhtab.
In all Muhammad married 13 wives:* The first was Khadija, whose father Khuwailid ibn Asad entrusted her to him, for whom he gave a dowry of ten young camels. It was also Kha-dija who bore him all his children - except for Ibrahim. Khadi-ja's previous husband was Abu Hala ibn Malik, of the Banu Usayd ibn Amr ibn Tamim, an ally of the Banu Abd al-Dar. Khadija bore him Hind and Zainab. Prior to Abu Hala, she had been married to ‘Utayyiq ibn ‘Aabid, to whom she bore Abd Al-lah and Jariya.
Muhammad lived out a life of polygamy, confirmed in the Qur’an (Sura al-Nisa 4:3), and thus becoming a legalized divine revelation for the Sharia. He possessed, in addition to his wives, female slaves, one of whom was Miriam, a Christian from Egypt, the only one among all his wives to bear him a son in the ten years of his rule in Medina.
Muhammad's understanding of marriage was markedly different from God's command established at creation (Genesis 1:27) as well as the confirmation of this command by Jesus Christ (Mark 10:2-12). It agreed, however, with the practices of David and Solomon.
With his Islamic understanding of marriage, Muhammad transgressed against a foundational order of the Creator - bringing unending suffering upon all Muslim women.
Muhammad became engaged to Aisha in Mecca, while she was seven years old and consummated the marriage in Medina, when she was nine years old:* She was the only virgin he married. Her father (Abu Bakr) gave her to him as wife. The dowry consisted of 400 dirhams.
When she died and Muhammad became ruler of Medina, he became engaged to a child - the seven year old Aisha. In the first years he still played with her on the floor of his house. When she reached physical maturity, in the ninth year of life, he consummated the marriage with her. She became Muhammad's favourite wife, and was only 19 years old when Muhammad died. There is no greater contrast in the life of Muhammad than that of his marriages with Khadija and Aisha. Both women played fundamental roles in the history of Islam.
Muhammad received Sauda from Salit ibn Amr. Other reports say it was from Abu Hatib ibn Amr Abd Shams ibn Abd Wudd. Her dowry was also 400 dirhams.
Zainab's guardian was her brother Abu Ahmad ibn Jahsh. She, too, received 400 dirhams as a dowry. Her first husband was Zaid ibn Haritha, the freedman of Muhammad (and his adopted son). Allah revealed about her: “… when Zaid had accomplished her want of her, then we (Allah) married her to you …” (Sura al-Ahzab 33:37).
Muhammad received Umm Salama, who was called Hind, from the hand of her son Salama ibn Abi Salama. Her dowry was a bed filled with palm fronds, a cup, a bowl and a mill. Her first husband was Abu Salama Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Asad. She bore him Salama, Umar, Zainab and Ruqaiya.
Muhammad received Hafsa from her father Umar. Her dowry was 400 dirhams. The name of her first husband was Khunais ibn Hudhaafa al-Sahmi.
Umm Habib, who was called Ramla, was given to him by Khalid ibn Sa‘id ibn al-‘As as wife. She was with Khalid in Abyssinia and the Najashi gave her 400 dirhams as a dowry in Mu-hammad's place. He had also solicited her to become the wife of Muhammad. Her first husband was ‘Ubaid Allah ibn Jahsh al-Asadi.
Juwairriya was among the prisoners of the Banu al-Mustaliq of Khuza’a. She fell to Thabit ibn Qays ibn al-Shammas, who had settled a redemption agreement with her. When she came to Muhammad and requested him to help her with the redemption agreement, he asked her: “Do you want something better?” She returned the questions: “What then?” He responded: “I will buy you free and marry you.” She agreed. Muhammad then asked her father for her in marriage. He gave her to him as wife and her dowry was 400 dirhams. Her first husband was her cousin Abd Allah.
Safiyya was a Jewish prisoner from Khaybar, whom Muhammad had chosen for himself. At the marriage feast Muhammad had neither meat nor fat. It consisted of porridge and dates. Her first husband was Kinana ibn Rabi‘a ibn Abi al-Huqaiq.
Muhammad received Maimuna from the hand of his uncle al-‘Abbas as wife, who paid the dowry of 400 dinars for him. Her first husband was Abu Ruhm ibn Abd al-‘Uzza. According to other reports, she gave herself to him. He asked for her hand in marriage as she sat upon her camel. She then said: “The camel and what is on it belongs to Allah and his messenger!” whereupon Allah revealed: “… and a believing woman, if she offers herself to the prophet …” (Sura al-Ahzab 33:50).* According to what others said, it was Zainab who gave herself to the prophet, others said it was Umm Sharik Ghaziyya, the daughter of Ja’bir ibn Wahb.
In order to justify this exception, the scholars of the Sharia speak of the Hiba-Marriage, which comes about when a woman unconditionally offers herself to a man - something that was only a privilege for Muhammad.
Muhammad received Zainab, who because of her benevolence was called the “Mother of the Poor”, from Qabisa ibn Amr al-Hilali as wife. The dowry from Muhammad was 400 dirhams. Her second husband was Ubaida ibn al-Harith ibn al-Muttalib, and her first husband was her cousin Jahm ibn Amr ibn al-Harith.
Muhammad consummated marriage with these eleven women. Two of them - Khadija and Zainab, died before Muhammad and nine wives outlived him. With two other women he did not consummate the marriage - with Asma, the daughter of Nu‘man from the tribe of Kinda, whom he found to be leprous and therefore sent back to her family with her dowry, and with Amra, the daughter of Yazid, of the tribe of Kilab, who had only recently become a believer and had sought refuge in Allah when she came to Muhammad. He then said: “Whoever comes to Allah for refuge will be protected!” He sent her back to her family. Among Muhammad's wives there were six Quraishites: Khadija, Aisha, Hafsa, Umm Habiba, Umm Salama and Sauda. Seven others came from the Bedouin tribes or from foreign groups: Zainab (the daughter of Jahsh), Maimuna, Zainab (the daughter of Khuzaima), Juwairiyya, Asma’ and Amra. Safiyya was not a Bedouin (rather a Jew); she was from the Banu al-Nadir.
11.03.3 -- Muhammad in the House of Aisha
Aisha related: “Muhammad came into my house led by two men from his family. One was al-Fadl ibn ‘Abbas. Muhammad had a cloth wrapped around his head and his legs were weak.” Ubaid Allah stated: “When I passed this tradition on to Abd Allah ibn al-‘Abbas, he asked: ‘Do you know who the other one was?’ I said: No’ He then said: ‘It was Ali.’” Muhammad finally became unconscious. The sickness grew worse. Later he commanded: “Pour seven skins of cold well water over me, so that I might go out to the people and announce my final words to them.” We set him in a tub that belonged to Hafsa and poured water over him, until he cried: “Enough! Enough!”
Muhammad then went out with his head bound and and set himself down at the pulpit. He began with a long prayer for the companions from Uhud, for whom he implored the mercy of Allah.*
He then said: “Allah has given his servant the choice between this world and the next, and his servant has chosen the nearness of Allah!”*
Abu Bakr perceived the meaning of the words and knew that Muhammad had been referring to himself. Therefore he wept and said: “We will gladly give up ourselves and our children for you!” Muhammad answered: “Gently, Abu Bakr!” He then continued on: “See the doors that lead to the mosque. Close them all but for the one that leads to the dwelling of Abu Bakr; for among all my companions, there is not one who stands closer to me than he.”*
11.03.4 -- Muhammad Commands the Sending of Usama Ibn Zaid (June 632 A.D.)
During the days of his sickness, Muhammad had observed that the people were not in agreement with the sending of Usama ibn Zaid. Some of them grumbled: “He has set a young man above the most honourable of the Emigrants and Helpers!” So Muhammad left Aisha's house with his head wrapped, sat on the podium and said (after he had praised and exalted Allah in a worthy and due manner): “O you people! Implement the sending of Usama! By my life, if you have something to object about his leadership, then you also do the same against that of his father. He is as worthy of it as his father was.” When Muhammad left the podium, his illness grew worse. Usama left the city with his army and set up his camp in Juraf, three miles away from the city. The people flocked to him. But since Muhammad was very sick, Usama remained in camp with his people. He wanted to wait and see what Allah would decide with his messenger.
11.03.5 -- Muhammad Commends the Helpers
It is reported that Muhammad, on the day that he prayed for the Companions from Uhud, was to have said, among other things: “O you Emigrants, treat the Helpers well!* Other people multiply themselves, but the Helpers remain as they are; they do not increase. They were the place of shelter to which I turned. Be good to those, who are friendly to them and punish all who are ill-disposed to them.” After that Muhammad left the pulpit. His suffering grew so strong that he became unconscious.
11.03.6 -- How Medicine was Administered to Muhammad
Abd Allah said: “Some of his wives came to him -- Umm Salama, Maimuna and others, among them was Asma, the daughter of Unais, as well as his uncle ‘Abbas. They reached agreement to give him medicine. ‘Abbas offered to give it, which is what happened. When Muhammad regained consciousness, he asked: ‘Who has done this to me?’ They an-swered: ‘Your uncle.’ He then said: ‘This is a medicine which women have brought from that country.’ He pointed in the direction of Abyssinia. ‘Why did you do that?’ ‘Abbas answered: ‘We feared you wold suffer from pleurisy (infection of the membranes surrounding the lung).’ Then he said: ‘That is a sickness that Allah did not send me. Now everyone in this house is to take from this medicine, except my uncle.’ This happened even to Maimuna, who was fasting. Muhammad had in fact sworn that this must happen, as a punishment for medicine they had administered to him.”*
11.03.7 -- Abu Bakr Leads the Community in Prayer
Aisha said: “When Muhammad was very sick, he commanded that Abu Bakr should lead in prayer. I responded: ‘Abu Bakr is a tender man. He has a weak voice and cries much when he reads the Qur’an.’ Nevertheless, Muhammad repeated his command. When I too repeated my words, he answered: ‘You are like the companions of Joseph. Command him to preside in prayer!’ By Allah, I had brought forth these objections in order for my father to be spared such as this. I well knew that they would never love a man who takes Muhammad's place, and that they would blame him for every unpleasant incident.”*
Abd Allah ibn Zam‘a explained: “When Muhammad became very ill, I and other Muslims were with him. Bilal called him to prayer, and he said: ‘Let someone else lead in prayer!’ I went out and met Umar* among the people (Abu Bakr was not present) and said to him: ‘Rise up and lead the community in prayer!’ Umar stood up and when he called out: ‘Allah is great!, Muhammad heard his powerful voice and asked: ‘Where is Abu Bakr? Allah does not want that, and the Muslims do not want it either.’ They then had Abu Bakr called. He came after Umar had already begun the prayers. He then continued with the prayer. Umar said to me (so said Abd Allah): ‘Woe to you! What have you done to me! By Allah, when you called me to lead the prayers, I thought that you did that at the order of Muhammad. Otherwise I would not have led the prayer.’ I answered: ‘By Allah, Muhammad did not command it to me. But when I saw you and missed Abu Bakr, I found you to be the worthiest among those present.’”
11.03.8 -- The Day of Muhammad's Death (8 June, 632 A.D. = 13 Rabi‘ al-Awwal (3rd month) of the 11th Year Following the Hijra)
It was a Monday on which Muhammad died. On that day he still went out to the morning prayer. The curtain was lifted and the door opened, and he remained standing at the door of Aisha's house. Out of Joy over Muhammad's appearing, the Muslims were tempted to interrupt their prayer. Muhammad motioned with his hand for them to continue in prayer. He was filled with joy to see them in their position of prayer. By Allah, Muhammad never appeared more delightful to me than on this day. He then went back into Aisha's house. The people went away assuming his condition had improved. Abu Bakr even went to his family in Sunh. Abu Mulaika reported to me: “Early Monday Muhammad came out with his head wrapped and Abu Bakr led the prayer. The people rejoiced greatly and since Abu Bakr knew that this was only because of Muhammad, he paused from the prayer. But Muhammad poked him in the back and admonished him: ‘Keep praying!’ He sat beside Abu Bakr and prayed to his right. When the prayer was finished, he turned to the congregation and said so loudly that his voice resounded outside: ‘O you people! The fire has been ignited and temptations come like the hours of a dark night, but by Allah, you can lay nothing to my charge. I have only permitted that which the Qur’an permits and forbidden what the Qur’an forbids.’* When Muhammad ceased talking, Abu Bakr said to him: ‘O prophet of Allah! I see that you fare well this morning through the goodness of Allah. Today is the day of the daughter of Kharija. Shall I visit her? Muhammad answered with ‘yes’. He then went again into his house and Abu Bakr made his way to his family in Sunh.”
Zuhri passed on from Abd Allah ibn Ka‘b ibn Malik that which Abd Allah ibn ‘Abbas was to have said: “On that day Ali came among the people after he had left Muhammad. When they asked him how the messenger of Allah was doing, he answered: ‘Thank God he is doing better!’ But ‘Abbas grasped his hand and said: ‘O Ali, by Allah, in three days you will be the servant of the congregation. I see death in the face of Muhammad, as I saw it in the sons of Abd al-Muttalib. Come with me; we will go to Muhammad. Let us see if authority will be allocated to us. If not, let us entreat him to recommend us to the people!’ Ali responded: ‘By Allah, I won't do that. If authority is denied us, then no one after him will bestow it upon us!’ Muhammad died on the same day, as the sun stood high in the heaven.”
11.03.9 -- Muhammad Cleaned his Teeth before his Death
Aisha said: “When Muhammad returned on that day from the mosque, he reclined on my lap. There then came a man from the clan of Abu Bakr inside. He had a fresh toothpick in his hand. Muhammad looked in a certain way at his hand, such that I noticed he wanted the toothpick. I asked him if I should give it to him. He answered: ‘Yes’. I took it, chewed on it enough to make it soft, and then gave it to him. He cleaned his teeth more carefully than ever and then laid it down. I noticed that he was becoming heavier in my lap. When I looked in his face, his gaze was directed upward. He said: ‘No, the higher Companions in paradise.’ I answered: ‘The choice has been given you, and you have chosen.’ And so the messenger of Allah died.
Aisha said: “Muhammad died between my lung and my neck (on my bosom). In regard to him I had wronged none. It was due to my impetuosity and youth that Muhammad died in my lap. I then laid his head on a pillow, stood up and began striking my face and beating my breast, as did the other women.*”
11.03.10 -- What Umar said after the Death of Muhammad
When Muhammad died, Umar rose up and said: “Some of the hypocrites maintain that Muhammad has died. But by Allah, Muhammad has not died, but has rather gone to his Lord, like Moses, the Son of ‘Imran, who remained away from his people for forty days and then returned, after they had already declared him dead. By Allah, the messenger of Allah will also return like Moses and hack off the hands and feet of those who declared him to be dead.”
When Abu Bakr got news of the words of Umar, he came as far as the door of the mosque, while Umar was still speaking to the people. But Umar paid no heed to it until he entered into the house of Aisha. Muhammad lay covered with a striped coat in a corner of the room. Abu Bakr stepped up to him, uncovered his face, kissed it and said: “You are more precious to me than father or mother. You have now tasted death, which Allah has ordained over you. After this death you will be immortal!” He then covered his face again with the coat, stepped outside and said to the still speaking Umar: “Gently, Umar, listen to me.” But Umar would not be interrupted and continued on with his speech. When Abu Bakr saw that he did not want to be quiet, he turned directly to the people. When they heard his words they turned to him and left Umar.
Abut Bakr praised Allah and then said: “O you people! Whoever worshipped Muhammad, let him know that he has died. But whoever worships Allah, well, he is still alive and will never die!” He then recited the following verse: “Muhammad is just a messenger; and messengers have passed away before him, Why, if he should die or be killed, will you turn about on your heels? If any man should turn about on his heels, he will not harm Allah in any way; and Allah will recompense the thankful.” (Sura Al ’Imran 3:144). And, by Allah, it was as if the people had never heard of the revelation of this verse, until that day when Abu Bakr read it to them. The people received it from Abu Bakr, and it was continuously in their mouths.
Abu Huraira said: “Umar said: ‘By Allah, as soon as I heard how Abu Bakr recited this verse, I was overcome with remorse, such that my feet could no longer carry me and I fell over. I now recognized that the messenger of Allah truly had died.’”*
11.03.11 -- What happened in the Courtyard of the Banu Sa’ida
Once Muhammad had died, this tribe of the Companions (from Medina) assembled around Sa‘d ibn Ubada in a courtyard of the Banu Sa’ida. Ali, Zubair and Talha withdrew into the house of Fatima. The rest of the Emigrants (from Mecca) made their way to Abu Bakr. Usayd ibn Hudhair, with the Banu Abd al-Ashhal, were with them. Then someone came to Abu Bakr and Umar and said: “This branch of the Helpers has assembled around Sa‘d ibn Ubada in the forecourt of the Banu Sa’ida, and already they have joined themselves to him. If you are seeking rulership, then make your way to them before something in this matter is decided.” Muhammad was still lying in his house. They were not yet finished with him, and his family had locked the door behind him. Umar then said to Abu Bakr: “Let us go to our brothers, the Helpers, in order to see what they intend to do.”
The assembling of the Helpers in the courtyard went as follows, following the report of Abd Allah ibn Abi Bakr, who got it from Zuhri, to whom it had been delivered by ‘Ubaid Allah ibn Abd Allah ibn ‘Utba ibn Mas’ud; Abd Allah ibn ‘Abbas said to him: “I was in the home of Abd al-Rahman ibn Auf in Mina and waited until he came back from Umar. It was at the time of his last pilgrimage and I sometimes recited the Qur’an to him. When he got back and saw me, he said: ‘If you had only seen how a man came to the prince of the believers and said to him: “O prince of the believers, what do you say to such and such, who has said: ‘By Allah, when Umar dies I will pay homage to such and such? By Allah, the homage of Abu Bakr came only as a surprise that was confirmed by this act.’” ‘Umar grew angry and said: ‘If Allah wills, I will warn the individuals tonight, who want to do harm to the people regarding their rule.’ I said: ‘O prince of the Believers, don't do this, for at the festival all kinds of bad people are assembled, who will first of all gather around you; when you rise up and deliver your words, then the people will spread it around on all sides, without truly having accepted and correctly understanding it. Wait rather until you come to Medina to the place of holy in-struction, where you will be surrounded exclusively by those knowledgeable of the law and noble men. What you say in Medina, will remain. Those knowledgeable in the law will pre-serve your words and rightly understand them!’ Umar said: ‘By Allah, if Allah so wills, I will at my first speech in Medina rise up for this!’”
“We came” - so reported Ibn ‘Abbas - “at the end of Dhu al-Hijja (12th month) to Medina. On the first Friday I hastened to the mosque, as soon as the sun had reached its high point. Sa‘id ibn Zaid ibn Amr Nufail was sitting already at the pillar of the podium. I sat down across from him, so that my knee touched his, and did not depart from him until Umar came. I then said to Sa‘id: ‘This evening he will speak forth words from this pulpit such as he has never spoken before - since he is the Caliph.’ Sa‘id did not want to believe it and said: ‘What can he say that he would not have said already?’ Umar sat down at the podium and - when the prayer callers were silent - rose up, praised Allah in a dutiful manner, and said: ‘Today I will say something to you in accordance with the determination of Allah, for I know not if I will be able to say it in my hour of death. Whoever understands it and learns by memory, let him spread it as far as his camel will carry him; whoever fears he does not know it correctly, let him guard himself against attributing to me words I never spoke. Allah sent Muhammad and revealed the book to him. A verse belongs to this revelation that relates to stoning.* We have read it, learned and memorized it. Muhammad himself allowed stoning and we have done it after him. Yet I fear that after a long time someone could say: “We find nothing about stoning in the book of Allah!” Thus a law Allah revealed will not be followed. For in accordance with the book of Allah, it is cammanded to stone adulterers when the proof is at hand. And even when there is a confession of the man or the woman, as well as during a pregnancy, the stoning is to be carried through.’
It is said, among other things: ‘Do not turn away from your fathers, for it is unrighteous (godlessness) when you do this.’ Even Muhammad demanded: ‘Do not deify me, like ‘Isa, the son of Mariam, has been deified. Call me servant and the messenger of Allah!’”*
Furthermore I heard, that so and so said: “By Allah, when Umar dies then I shall pay homage to so and so” But yet no one be so blind as to say that the homage to Abu Bakr was a matter of haste. But it came about this way, and Allah prevented evil thereby, for there was no one among you who the people were more devoted to than Abu Bakr. Yet whoever should pay homage to a man without the decision of Muslim council, his homage is invalid, just as is the homage paid by one who does it out of fear of being killed. We heard that when Allah took Muhammad to himself, that the Helpers (from Medina) divided and assembled with their leaders in the courtyard of the Banu Sa’ida. Ali, Zubair and their followers also stayed away from us, while the Emigrants (from Mecca) assembled around Abu Bakr. I then said to Abu Bakr: “Let us go to our brothers, the Helpers!” On the way we met two upright men, who relayed to us the agreement and asked us where we wanted to go. We said: “To our brothers, the Helpers.” They then said: ‘Do not go near them, you Emigrants. Complete by yourselves what you are intending!” I responded: “By Allah, we are going to them!” We entered the courtyard of the Banu Sa’ida and found a man covered up amidst them. We asked: “Who is this man?” They answered us: “Sa‘d ibn Ubada.” I asked: “What does he have?” They answered: “He is sick!” When we sat down their speaker began with the confession of faith and praise of Allah, he then said: “We are the helpers of Allah and the army of Islam. You who emigrated belong to our clan. A multitude of your men stormed upon us and will tear us away from our origin and wrest rulership from us.” When he grew silent, I wanted to speak. I had already prepared a speech, one that pleased me and one I wanted to present before Abu Bakr, because I missed some severity in him. But he said: “Gently, Umar!” I did not want to anger him and gave him precedence. When he then spoke, his words were more scholarly and weighty than mine and, by Allah, he left out not a single word of that which I had intended to speak. But he expressed it differently and better. He spoke: “Most certainly you deserve all the good things you claim about yourselves, yet the Bedouins only accept the rule of the Quraish. This tribe is the central part of the Arabs, both concerning their origin as well as their domicile. I suggest to you one of these two men; pay homage to whom you will!” With these words he grasped my hand and that of Abu Ubaida ibn al-Jarrah. By Allah, if they had taken me to my execution, without having commited a crime, I would have preferred that than ruling over a people of whom Abu Bakr was one.
A speaker of the Helpers then said: “I am the post on which the camel scratches and the well-supported date palm. One emir is to be chosen from us and one from you Quraish.” Then a great noise went forth. The voices grew louder and louder, such that I feared a division. I then said to Abu Bakr: “Stretch out your hand!” When he stretched it out, I paid homage to him. Immediately the Emigrants and the Helpers paid homage to him. We then attacked Sa‘d ibn Ubada, such that one of them cried out: “You are killing Sa‘d!” But I responded: “May Allah kill him!”*
When the Helpers from Medina suggested two caliphs - one from their midst and one from the group of the Quraish, Umar began to, after Abu Bakr stretched out his hand, pay homage to him, drawing the majority with him to Abu Bakr.
Muhammad was not yet buried when battles broke out concerning who was to succeed him. It neither concerned the worship of Allah nor the mourning over Muhammad's death, but power alone. These incidents clearly reflect the spirit of Islam.
Jesus sent His disciples into prayerful seclusion for ten days following His ascension, until the Holy Spirit should fall upon them. Peter had previously been appointed by Jesus to be head of the apostles. The Holy Spirit confirmed this calling. At Pentecost the matter of seizing political power did not play any role, but the matter of receiving the power of God. The disciples themselves had asked Jesus before His ascension regarding the establishment of God's kingdom among the Old Testament people. But Jesus set aside their earthly thinking and promised them the Holy Spirit, who would build them into a spiritual kingdom - the church of Jesus Christ.
11.03.12 -- Umar's Speech on the Day of the General Homage
Zuhri reported from Anas ibn Malik: “On the day of the homage in the courtyard, Abu Bakr sat in the pulpit. Umar then rose up and said (after he had praised Allah, as was meet to say): ‘O you people! I spoke words to you yesterday that I have not found in the book of Allah and also that which the messenger of Allah did not commission me to do. I was of the opinion that Muhammad would direct our matters through his final words to us. But Allah has left his book among us, that contains the guidance of his messenger. If you hold fast to it, Allah will lead you by it, just as he led him.*
Allah united you around the best among you, around the Companion of the messenger of Allah who was with him as the second in the cave. Rise up and pay him homage!’ Then the community paid homage to Abu Bakr once more.”*
11.03.13 -- The Speech of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr held (after he had praised Allah) the following speech: “O you people! I have been appointed to be your leader, although I am not the best among you. If I govern rightly, then give me your support; if I do wrongly, then straighten me out! Truth is loyalty, lying is betrayal. The weak among you is strong before me, until I secure his right for him, if Allah so will.
The strong is weak before me, until I, if Allah so wills, satisfy the demands of the Law. Never has a people failed to fight in the way of Allah, without Allah giving them over to contempt. And never have there been shameful things committed by a people without Allah bringing misfortune upon them. Obey me, as long as I obey the commands of Allah and his messenger. Should I act contrary to them, then you owe me no obedience. Rise to prayer, may Allah have mercy upon you!”*
11.03.14 -- The Preparation and Burial of Muhammad
After homage had been paid to Abu Bakr, Muhammad's burial took place on a Tuesday. Ali, ‘Abbas and his sons Fadl and Qutham, Usama ibn Zaid and Shuqran, a freedman of Muhammad took charge of the washing. Aus ibn Khauli called from outside: “I implore you by Allah and by our share in Muhammad!” Ali had him come in. Aus entered, sat down and was present for the washing. Ali leaned Muhammad upon his breast. ‘Abbas and his sons helped in turning him. Usama and Shuqran poured water over his body, and Ali washed him while leaning him upon his breast. Muhammad had his under-garment on. He rubbed over it without touching him with his hand. Ali spoke: “How beautiful you are, living and dead!” One could not see on Muhammad what is normally seen on other corpses. Aisha said: “When they wanted to wash Muhammad, there was no consensus whether he should be, like other corpses, undressed, or whether he should be washed in his garment. Allah then let all of them fall asleep. Their chins had sunk to their breasts when someone from a side of the house said (no one knew who it was): ‘Wash the prophet in his garment!’ They then washed him in his undergarment. They poured water upon it and so rubbed his body that the under-garment remained between him and their hands. When the washing was completed, they wrapped him in three garments, in two from Suhar* and one stripped cloak, in which he was wrapped:”
Ibn ‘Abbas said: “When they wanted to dig out the grave for Muhammad, they were undecided regarding two grave-diggers: That is, Abu Ubaida ibn al-Jarrah, the gravedigger of the Meccans, who dug the grave in the middle of the crypt and Abu Talha Zaid ibn Sahl, who dug on a side of the crpyt. ‘Abbas then called for two men. The one he sent to Abu Ubaida and the other to Abu Talha. ‘Abbas said: ‘Allah! Choose the right grave for your messenger!’ The one sent to Abu Talha returned first. He brought Abu Talha with him. This man dug the grave on the side of the crpyt.”
When Muhammad's body was prepared for burial, they laid him in his house on his bed. There was argument over where he should be buried. Some wanted to bury him in the mosque, and others with his Companions. Abu Bakr then said: “I heard how Muhammad said: ‘Every prophet has been buried in the place in which he died!’” They then took up the carpet on which Muhammad had died and dug out a grave under it.* The people then came in throngs to pray for him; first the men, then the women, finally the children, without anyone restraining them.
Muhammad was buried on Wednesday, in the middle of the night. Aisha said: “We knew nothing about the burial of Muhammad. In the middle of the night on Wednesday, we suddenly heard the sound of hacking. The same was reported to me by Fatima. Ali, Fadl ibn ‘Abbas, Quthum and Shuqran climbed into the grave. Aus ibn Khauli then called out to Ali: ‘I implore you by Allah and by our share in the messenger of Allah.’ Ali then said: ‘Come down!’ Aus ibn Khauli then climbed down to the others in the grave. Shuqran had, when he laid Muhammad in the grave, taken the cloak in which Muhammad had always wrapped himself, tore it and buried it with him. He said: ‘By Allah! No one will ever wear this cloak after you!’ Mughira ibn Shu‘ba maintained that he was the last one to come in contact with Muhammad. He said: ‘I threw my signet ring into the grave and called out: “I let it fall!” But I intentionally threw it in in order to be the last to come in contact with the messenger of Allah.’”
Aisha further said: “During his sickness Muhammad had a cover over him, with which he covered his face, and which he would from time to time remove. Then he would say: ‘Allah, fight a people that make the graves of your prophets into houses of prayer!’ He thereby feared that his people wanted to do that.”
Aisha also said that the last words of Muhammad were: “Two religions are not to be tolerated on the Arabian Peninsula.”*
When Muhammad died there came great misfortune over the Muslims. Aisha said: “When Muhammad died, the Bedouins apostatised. Judaism and Christianity rose up and the hypocrites openly showed themselves. Because of the death of their prophet, the Muslims resembled a wet herd on a winter night, until Allah rallied them around Abu Bakr.
11.04 -- Conclusion
Hassan mourned Muhammad in the following poem:
Hassan ibn Thabit also composed concerning Muhammad's death:
Islamic law was formed from four sources: the Qur’an, the Sunna (Muhammad's way of life), the Qiyas (deduction through analogy) and the Consensus of Islamic scholars. Muhammad's way of life thus became the standard for all Muslims. Every person is to live as Muhammad lived. He must, so to speak, be clothed with Muhammad. Only when he is “in” Muhammad will he be a good Muslim.
In the same way, Christians cannot be better than Jesus was and is. They are called in faith and self-denial to follow Him and to grow into Him. No law forces them to put on their Lord and Savior like a new garment, rather the Spirit of Christ fills them with His love, so that Jesus remains “in” them and they “in” Him.
Whoever considers the profound differences between Jesus and Muhammad, begins to discern the forces and goals of the history of the church and and of Islam during the last 2,000 years. Furthermore, he will have a sense of what future developments await us.
Muhammad is dead - Jesus lives!
Whoever follows Muhammad, follows a religion of death.
Whoever follows Jesus, will live forever!
He who believes in the Son
has everlasting life;
and he who does not obey the Son
shall not see life,
but the wrath of God abides on him”
11.05 -- Test
If you have carefully studied this volume, you will easily be able to answer the following questions. Whoever can answer 90% of the questions in the 11 volumes of this series correctly, will receive from our center a written certificate of recognition on:
on the life of Muhammad in light of the Gospel
- as an encouragement in future service for Christ.
- What did Muhammad say in his sermon during the farewell pilgrimage in Mecca?
- How many military campaigns did Muhammad himself lead? How many military activities were carried out by persons that Muhammad commissioned?
- Why was the Jew Yusair ibn Rizam murdered in Khaybar? What trickery did the Muslims enlist to render him defenceless?
- Why and for what purpose did Abu Bakr have to admonish the convert from Christianity to Islam, Raafi‘ ibn Abi Raafi‘?
- Why was Asma’, the daughter of Marwan, murdered?
- What happened to Thumama?
- How many women did Muhammad marry? How many were still living when he died?
- From what and where did Muhammad die?
- What were the last words of Muhammad?
- What did Umar and Abu Bakr say after the death of Muhammad?
- Where and how was Muhammad buried?
Every participant taking part in this test is allowed to use, for the purpose of answering the questions, any book that stands available to him or ask any trustworthy person he chooses. We await your written answers, including your complete address on paper or e-mail. We pray to Jesus, the living Lord, for you, that He might call, send, lead, strengthen, preserve and be with you each day of your life!
United with you in the service of Jesus,
Abd al-Masih and Salam Falaki.
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