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BIK01 - Biblical Investigations of the Koran
A Ministry Course on Biblical Content in the Koran
STAGE 2 - Biblical PASSAGES and Biblical PERSONALITIES in the Koran
UNIT 08 - INVESTIGATE ADDITIONS: Examples of Non-Biblical Texts on Adam Added in the Koran - Analysis, Explanation and Application
08.2 - ADDITION EXAMPLE 2: Adam's repentance and restitution (Three Koranic verses about Adam added by the Koran)
140 - ADDITION EXAMPLE 2: Analysis 2 - The eight non-biblical teachings about Adam in the Koran in these three Koran verses
On the basis of these contexts it is possible to single out the following elements mentioned in these three Koran verses and arrange them in the following (partly chronological?) order. The contextual elements are printed in GREEN. The REMARKS appended to each point are meant to highlight the vagueness of these non-biblical additions in the Koran::
1. CONTEXT 1: Adam and his wife committed an evil deed, being misled by Satan: Suras 2:36 + 7:22 + 20:121. -- REMARK: The nature of this evil deed, what led to this evil deed and the result of this evil deed are diverse in the verses listed here. (This will be treated in part in the next UNIT 09.)
2. Adam and his wife acknowledged their evil deed
and hoped for Allah's pardon and mercy: Sura 7:23. -- REMARK: What the evil deed is, which they acknowledged is not explicitly mentioned here, nor in what sense they said that they wronged themselves.
3. Allah elected
Adam: Sura 20:122a. -- REMARK: The Koran gives no purpose or content for this election of Adam by Allah. What was he elected for? What effect did this election have?
4. Allah pardoned
Adam: Sura 20:122b. -- REMARK: It is curious that the pardon is only accorded to Adam, but not to his wife. Also, it is not clear in what sense Adam was pardoned, for shortly after this he was commanded by Allah to descend from the (Jannah) Garden, which can be viewed as a punishment
5. Allah guided Adam well: Sura 20:122c. -- REMARK: In what sense did Allah guide Adam well? For right after this statement of the Koran Allah commanded Adam to descend from the (Jannah) Garden. Is this command to leave Paradise the content of Allah's guidance?
6. CONTEXT 2: Allah commanded Adam and his wife to descend from the (Jannah) Garden and to become one another's enemy: Suras 2:36 + 7:24 + 20:123 (see also 2:38, where everybody is commanded to descend from the Garden). -- REMARK: The (Jannah) Garden is not explicitly mentioned here, but the place from which they were commanded to descend is regarded as being elevated: is it in one of the heavens, or between heaven and earth, or on a mountain on earth? No location is mentioned in the Koran. It is curious that Allah commanded them to be each other's enemies. Is it Allah's will for people to hate one another? (Again this will be treated in part in the following UNIT 09.)
7. Adam received
words from Allah: Sura 2:37a. -- REMARK: The content of these words is not given.
8. Allah pardoned Adam: Suras 2:37b. -- REMARK: Did Allah pardon Adam again? If so, what offence of Adam did Allah pardon this time? Or is this verse simply placed in the wrong order in the Koran, coming after the expulsion from the Garden instead of coming before it, as is the case in Sura 20:122b? Or is Sura 20:122b in the wrong order and should have come after the expulsion of Adam and his wife from the Garden?